This post is a walkthrough multiple definitions of digital transformation from multiple sources.
Digital transformation can be elusive if you can’t define it.
Lucky for us, there is no shortage of definitions for digital transformation.
I find that rather than use one single definition for digital transformation, it’s actually more helpful to look at a range of definitions to really internalize what digital transformation means from multiple angles.
Before you walk through the definitions, be sure to review Satya’s pillars for Digital Transformation so you have a simple mental model to work with.Wikipedia on Digital Transformation
Wikipedia has a simple explanation:
“Digital transformation refers to the changes associated with the application of digital technology in all aspects of human society.”
What I like about that definition is that it goes beyond pure business and includes all impact on society, whether it’s education, government, sports, arts, leisure, etc.Altimeter on Digital Transformation
Altimeter defined digital transformation from a customer-focused lens in their online report, The 2014 State of Digital Transformation:
“The realignment of, or new investment in, technology and business models to more effectively engage digital customers at every touchpoint in the customer experience lifecycle.”
What I like about Altimeter’s definition is that it’s outside in vs. inside out. The big idea is to leverage technology to adapt to your customer’s changing preferences. So if you “transform”, but there is no visible impact to your customers or to the market, then you didn’t really transform.Capgemini and MIT Center for Digital Business on Digital Transformation
Capgemini and MIT Center for Digital Business define Digital Transformation in Digital Transformation: A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations like this:
“Digital transformation – the use of technology to radically improve performance or reach of enterprises.”
While their definition may look simplistic, the power is in the data behind the definition. It’s a global study of how 157 executives in 50 large traditional companies are managing – and benefiting from – digital transformation.Agile Elephant on Digital Transformation
Agile Elephant defines digital transformation like this:
“Digital transformation is the process of shifting your organisation from a legacy approach to new ways of working and thinking using digital, social, mobile and emerging technologies. It involves a change in leadership, different thinking, the encouragement of innovation and new business models, incorporating digitisation of assets and an increased use of technology to improve the experience of your organisation’s employees, customers, suppliers, partners and stakeholders.”
While this definition may seem more elaborate, I find this elaboration can really help get somebody’s head into the digital transformation game.MIT Sloan’s 9 Elements of Digital Transformation
In The Nine Elements of Digital Transformation, George Westerman, Didier Bonnet and Andrew McAfee identify the key attributes of digital transformation:Category Items Transforming Customer Experience
- Customer Understanding
- Top-Line Growth
- Customer Touch Points
- Process Digitization
- Worker Enablement
- Performance Management
- Digitally Modified Businesses
- New Digital Businesses
- Digital Globalization
The nine elements are excerpted from their digital report, Digital Transformation: A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations. Here are quick summaries of each:
- Customer Understanding – Customer Understanding is where “Companies are starting to take advantage of previous investments in systems to gain an in-depth understanding of specific geographies and market segments.”
- To-Line Growth – Top-Line Growth is where “Companies are using technology to enhance in-person sales conversations.”
- Customer Touch Points – Customer Touch Points are where “Customer service can be enhanced significantly by digital initiatives.”
- Process Digitization – Process Digitization is where “Automation can enable companies to refocus their people on more strategic tasks.”
- Worker Enablement – Worker Enablement is where “Individual-level work has, in essence, been virtualized — separating the work process from the location of the work.”
- Performance Management – Performance Management is where “Transactional systems give executives deeper insights into products, regions and customers, allowing decisions to be made on real data and not on assumptions.”
- Digitally Modified Businesses – Digitally Modified Businesses is “finding ways to augment physical with digital offerings and to use digital to share content across organizational silos.”
- New Digital Businesses – New Digital businesses is where “companies are introducing digital products that complement traditional products.”
- Digital Globalization – Digital Globalization is where “Companies are increasingly transforming from multinational to truly global operations.”
Sidenote – George, Didier, and Andrew sum up the power of digital transformation when they say, “”Whether it is in the way individuals work and collaborate, the way business processes are executed within and across organizational boundaries, or in the way a company understands and serves customers, digital technology provides a wealth of opportunity.”Digital Business Transformation
I think it’s worth pointing out the distinction between Digital Transformation and Digital “Business” Transformation.
Digital Business Transformation is specifically about transforming the business with digital technologies.
There are many lenses to look at but in particular it helps to view it through the lens of business model innovation. So you can think of it as innovating in your business models through digital technologies. Your business model is simply the WHO (customers), the WHAT (value prop), the HOW (value chain), and your WHY (profit model.)
An exec from SAP at Davos said it well when he said “new business models are driven by different interactions with companies and their customers.”
In pragmatic terms, that means evolving your business model and interaction patterns to meet the changing demands of your customers all along your value chain. For example, consider how millennials want to interact with a business in today’s world. They want to learn about a company or brand through their friends and family on social networks and through real stories from authentic people, and they want access to services anytime, anywhere, from any device.
Another way to think about this is how many companies are learning how to wrap their engineering teams around their customer’s end-to-end journey to directly address the customer’s pains, needs, and desired outcomes.
Hopefully, this helps give you a good enough understanding to get going with your Digital Transformation and to understand the difference between Digital Transformation and Digital Business Transformation so that you can pave your path forward.
If nothing else, go back to the Altimeter Group’s definition of Digital Transformation,“The realignment of, or new investment in, technology and business models to more effectively engage digital customers at every touchpoint in the customer experience lifecycle.”, and use Satya’s pillars for Digital Transformation as a guide to stay grounded.Additional Resources
Digital Transformation: A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations, by Capgemini and MIT Center for Digital Business
The 2014 State of Digital Transformation, by Altimeter
The Nine Elements of Digital Transformation, by George Westerman, Didier Bonnet and Andrew McAfeeYou Might Also Like
It’s always cool to see the work our team is doing around the world to help hack a better world.
Our Digital Advisory Services team is helping the Government of India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD), to reimagine the student experience and to develop India’s first MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) platform.
Apparently, the presentation went so well that the honorable HRD minister, Smriti Irani tweeted our Student Experience Journey Map that helps show the vision and the Digital Transformation opportunities.
Way to go!
Satya posted his mental model for Digital Transformation:
I like the simplicity.
What I like is that there are four clear pillars or areas to look at for driving Digital Transformation:
Collectively, these four Digital Transformation pillars set the stage for transforming your business model.
What I also like is that this matches what I learned while driving Digital Business Transformation with our field with customers, and as part of Satya’s innovation team.
Effectively, to generate new sources of revenue, organizations re-imagine their customer experience along their value chain. As they connect and engage with their customers in new ways, this transforms their employee experience, and their operations. As they gain new insight into their customers behavior and needs, they transform their products and services.
In a world of infinite compute and infinite storage…how would you re-imagine your business for a mobile-first, cloud-first world?You Might Also Like
This is an article that I originally wrote for the Architecture Journal to walk through how we created “a language for software architecture.” Since the article is no longer available, I’m making it available here for old time’s sake.
The goal at the time was to create a simple way to work through solution design challenges and expose some of the key architectural concerns and choices.
The idea was to make it very easy to zoom out to the broader context, and then very quickly zoom into common architecture choices, such as deployment topologies and cross-cutting concerns.
I also wanted to be able to better leverage the existing patterns in the software industry by giving them a backdrop and a canvas so architects could compose them easier and apply them in a more holistic and effective way.
Grady Booch, one of IBM’s distinguished engineers, had this to say about the Architecture Guide where we first created this “language for architecture”:
“Combine these styles and archetypes, and you have an interesting language for describing a large class of applications. While I don’t necessarily agree that these styles and archetypes are orthogonal (nor are the lists complete) for the general domain of software architecture, for Microsoft’s purposes, these styles offer an excellent operating model into which one can apply their patterns and practices.”
While a lot has changed since the original creation of our Architecture Language, a lot of the meta-frame remains the same. If I were to update the Architecture Language, I would simply walk through the big categories and update them.Summary
One of the most important outcomes of the patterns & practices Application Architecture Guide 2.0 project is a language for the space. A language for application architecture. Building software applications involves a lot of important decisions. By organizing these decisions as a language and a set of mental models, we can simplify organizing and sharing information. By mapping out the architecture space, we can organize and share knowledge more effectively. By using this map as a backdrop, we can also overlay principles, patterns, technologies, and key solutions assets in meaningful and relevant ways. Rather than a sea of information, we can quickly browse hot spots for relevant solutions.
- A Map of the Terrain
- Mapping Out the Architecture Space
- Architecture Frame
- Application Types
- Application Feature Frame
- Architecture Styles
- Quality Attributes
- Layered Architecture Reference Example
One of the most effective ways to deal with information overload is to frame a space. Just like you frame a picture, you can frame a problem to show it a certain way. When I started the patterns & practices Application Architecture Guide 2.0 project, the first thing I wanted to do was to frame out the space. Rather than provide step-by-step architectural guidance, I thought it would be far more valuable to first create a map of what’s important. We could then use this map to prioritize and focus our efforts. We could also use this map as a durable, evolvable backdrop for creating, organizing and sharing our patterns & practices work. This is the main map, the Architecture Frame, we created to help us organize and share principles, patterns, and practices in the application architecture space:
Creating the map was an iterative and incremental process. The first step was to break up application architecture into meaningful buckets. It first started when I created a project proposal for our management team. As part of the proposal, I created a demo to show how we might chunk up the architecture space in a meaningful way. In the demo, I included a list of key trends, a set of application types, a set of architectural styles, a frame for quality attributes, an application feature frame, a set of example deployment patterns, and a map of patterns & practices solution assets. I used examples where possible simply to illustrate the idea. It was well received and it served as a strawman for the team.
Each week, our core Application Architecture Guide 2.0 project team met with our extended development team, which primarily included patterns & practices development team members. During this time, we worked through a set of application types, created a canonical application, analyzed layers and tiers, evaluated key trends, and created technology matrix trade-off charts. To create and share information rapidly, we created a lot of mind maps and slides. The mind maps worked well. Rather than get lost in documents, we used the mind maps as backdrops for conversation and elaboration.
Key Mapping Exercises
We mapped out several things in parallel:
- Key trends. Although we didn’t focus on trends in the guide, we first mapped out key trends to help figure out what to pay attention to. We used a mind map and we organized key trends by application, infrastructure, and process. While there weren’t any major surprises, it was a healthy exercise getting everybody on the same page in terms of which trends mattered.
- Canonical application. This first thing we did was figure out what’s the delta from the original architecture guide. There were a few key changes. For example, we found that today’s applications have a lot more clients and scenarios they serve. They’ve matured and they’ve been extended. We also found today’s applications have a lot more services, both in terms of exposing and in terms of consuming. We also noticed that some of today’s applications are flatter and have less layers. Beyond that, many things such as the types of components and the types of layers were fairly consistent with the original model.
- Layers and tiers. This was one of the more painful exercises. Early in the project, we met each week with our development team, along with other reviewers. The goal was to map out the common layers, tiers, and components. While there was a lot of consistency with the original application architecture guide, we wanted to reflect any learnings and changes since the original model. Once we had a working map of the layers, tiers, and components, we vetted with multiple customers to sanity check the thinking.
- Application types. We originally explored organizing applications around business purposes or dominant functionality, customer feedback told us we were better off optimizing around technical types, such as Web application or mobile client. They were easy for customers to identify with. They also made it easy to overlay patterns, technologies, and key patterns & practices solution assets. The technical application types also made it easy to map out relevant technologies.
- Architectural styles. This is where we had a lot of debate. While we ultimately agreed that it was helpful to have a simple language for abstracting the shapes of applications and the underlying principles from the technology, it was difficult to create a map that everybody was happy with. Things got easier once we changed some of the terminology and we organized the architectural styles by common hot spots. It then became obvious that the architectural styles are simply named sets of principles. We could then have a higher level conversation around whether to go with object-based community or message-based and SOA, for example. It was also easy to describe deployments in terms of 2-tier, 3-tier, and N-tier.
- Hot spots for architecture. When you build applications, there’s a common set of challenges that show up again. For example, caching, data access, exception management, logging … etc. These are application infrastructure problems or cross-cutting concerns. You usually don’t want to make these decisions ad-hoc on any significant application. Instead, you want to have a set of patterns and guidelines or ideally reusable code that the team can leverage throughout the application. What makes these hot spots is that they are actionable, key engineering decisions. You want to avoid do-overs where you can. Some do-overs are more expensive than others. One of the beauties of the architecture hot spots is that they helped show the backdrop behind Enterprise Library. For example, there’s a data access block, a caching block, a validation block … etc.
- Hot spots for application types. When you build certain classes of application, there’s recurring hot spots. For example, when you build a rich client, one of the common hot spots to figure out is how to handle occasionally disconnected scenarios. The collection of hot spots for architecture served as a baseline for finding hot spots in the other application types. For example, from the common set of hot spots, we could then figure out which ones are relevant for Web applications, or which additional hot spots would we need to include.
- Patterns. Mapping out patterns was a lengthy process. Ultimately, we probably ended up with more information in our workspace than made it into the guide. To map out the patterns, we created multiple mind maps of various pattern depots. We summarized patterns so that we could quickly map them from problems to solutions. We then used our architecture hot spots and our hot spots for application types as a filter to find the relevant patterns. We then vetted the patterns with customers to see if the mapping was useful. We cut any patterns that didn’t seem high enough priority. We also cut many of our pattern descriptions when they started to weight the guide down. We figured we had plenty of material and insight to carve out future pattern guides and we didn’t want to overshadow the value of the main chapters in the guide. We decided the best move for now was to provide a Pattern Map at the end of each application chapter to show which patterns are relevant for key hot spots. Customers seemed to like this approach and it kept things lightweight.
- patterns & practices solution assets. This was the ultimate exercise in organizing our catalog. We actually have a large body of documented patterns. We also have several application blocks and factories, as well as guides. By using our architecture frame, it was easier to organize the catalog. For example, the factories and reference implementations mapped to the application types. The Enterprise Library blocks mapped to the architecture hot spots. Several of the guides mapped to the quality attributes frame.
- Microsoft platform. This was a challenge. It meant slicing and dicing the platform stack in a meaningful way as well as finding the right product team contacts. Once we had our application types in place, it got a lot easier. For example, depending on which type of application you were building (RIA, Web, mobile … etc.), this quickly narrowed down relevant technology options. We created technology matrixes for presentation technologies, integration technologies, workflow technologies, and data access technologies. Since the bulk of the guide is principle and pattern based, we kept these matrixes in the appendix for fast lookups.
Over the weeks and months of the project, a very definite map of the landscape emerged. We found ourselves consistently looking for the same frames to organize information. While we tuned and pruned specific hot spots in areas, the overall model of common frames was helping us move through the space quickly.
- Architecture frame. The architecture frame was the main organizing map. It brought together the context (scenarios, quality attributes, requirements/constraints), application types, architectural styles, and the application hot spots.
- Application types. For application types, we optimized around a simple, technical set that resonated with customers. For example, Web application, RIA, mobile … etc.
- Quality attributes. We organized quality attributes by key hot spots: system, runtime, design-time, and user qualities.
- Architectural styles. We organized architectural styles by key hot spots: communication, deployment, domain, interaction, and structure.
- Requirements and constraints. We organized requirements by key types: functional, non-functional, technological. We thought of constraints in terms of industry and organizational constraints, as well as by which concern (for example, constraints for security or privacy).
- Application feature frame. The application feature frame became a solid backdrop for organizing many guidelines through the guide. The hot spots resonated: caching, communication, concurrency and transactions, configuration management, coupling and cohesion, data access, exception management, layering, logging and instrumentation, state management, structure, validation and workflow.
- Application type frames. The application type frames are simply hot spots for key application types. We created frames for: Web applications, rich internet applications (RIA), mobile applications, rich client applications and services.
- Layered architecture reference model. (Canonical application) The canonical application is actually a layered architecture reference model. It helps show the layers and components in context.
- Layers and tiers. We used layers to represent logical partitions and tiers for physical partitions (this precedent was set in the original guide.) We identified key components within the key layers: presentation layer, business layer, data layer, and service layer.
- Pattern Maps. Pattern maps are simply overlays of key patterns on top of relevant hot spots. We created pattern maps for the application types.
- Product and technology maps. We created technology matrixes for relevant products and technologies. To put the technologies in context, we used application types where relevant. We also used scenarios. To help make trade-off decisions, we included benefits and considerations for each technology.
One thing that helped early on was creating a Venn diagram of the three perspectives, user, business, and system:
In application architecture, it’s easy to lose perspective. It helps to keep three perspectives in mind. By having a quick visual of the three perspectives, it was easy to reminder ourselves that architecture is always a trade-off among these perspectives. It also helped remind us to be clear which perspective we’re talking about at any point in time. This also helped resolve many debates. The problem in architecture debates is that everybody is usually right, but only from their perspective. Once we showed people where their perspective fit in the bigger picture, debates quickly turned from conflict to collaboration. It was easy to move through user goals, business goals, and system goals once people knew the map.
The Architecture Frame is a simple way to organize the space. It’s a durable, evolvable backdrop. You can extend it to suit your needs. The strength of the frame is that it combines multiple lenses:
Here are the key lenses:
- Scenarios. This sets the context. You can’t evaluate architecture in a vacuum. You need a backdrop. Scenarios provide the backdrop for evaluation and relevancy.
- Quality Attributes. This includes your system qualities, your runtime qualities, your design-time qualities and user qualities.
- Requirements / Constraints. Requirements and constraints includes functional requirements, non-functional requirements, technological requirements, industry constraints and organizational constraints.
- Application Types. This is an extensible set of common types of applications or clients. You can imagine extending for business types. You can imagine including just the types of applications your organization builds. Think of it as product-line engineering. When you know the types of applications you build, you can optimize it.
- Architectural Styles. This is a flat list of common architectural styles. The list of architectural styles is flexible and most applications are a mash up of various styles. Architectural styles become more useful when they are organized by key decisions or concerns.
- Application Feature Frame. The application feature frame is a concise set of hot spots that show up time and again across applications. They reflect cross-cutting concerns and common application infrastructure challenges.
This is the simple set of technical application types we defined:
Applications of this type typically support connected scenarios and can support different browsers running on a range of operating systems and platforms.
Rich Internet applications (RIA)
Applications of this type can be developed to support multiple platforms and multiple browsers, displaying rich media or graphical content. Rich Internet applications run in a browser sandbox that restricts access to some devices on the client.
Applications of this type can be developed as thin client or rich client applications. Rich client mobile applications can support disconnected or occasionally connected scenarios. Web or thin client applications support connected scenarios only. The device resources may prove to be a constraint when designing mobile applications.
Rich client applications
Applications of this type are usually developed as stand-alone applications with a graphical user interface that displays data using a range of controls. Rich client applications can be designed for disconnected and occasionally connected scenarios because the applications run on the client machine.
Services expose complex functionality and allow clients to access them from local or remote machine. Service operations are called using messages, based on XML schemas, passed over a transport channel. The goal in this type of application is to achieve loose coupling between the client and the server.Application Feature Frame
This is the set of hot spots for applications we defined:
Authentication and Authorization
Authentication and authorization allow you to identify the users of your application with confidence, and to determine the resources and operations to which they should have access.
Caching and State
Caching improves performance, reduces server round trips, and can be used to maintain the state of your application.
Communication strategies determine how you will communicate between layers and tiers, including protocol, security, and communication-style decisions.
Composition strategies determine how you manage component dependencies and the interactions between components.
Concurrency and Transactions
Concurrency is concerned with the way that your application handles conflicts caused by multiple users creating, reading, updating, and deleting data at the same time. Transactions are used for important multi-step operations in order to treat them as though they were atomic, and to recover in the case of a failure or error.
Configuration management defines how you configure your application after deployment, where you store configuration data, and how you protect the configuration data.
Coupling and Cohesion
Coupling and cohesion are strategies concerned with layering, separating application components and layers, and organizing your application trust and functionality boundaries.
Data access strategies describe techniques for abstracting and accessing data in your data store. This includes data entity design, error management, and managing database connections.
Exception-management strategies describe techniques for handling errors, logging errors for auditing purposes, and notifying users of error conditions.
Logging and Instrumentation
Logging and instrumentation represents the strategies for logging key business events, security actions, and provision of an audit trail in the case of an attack or failure.
User experience is the interaction between your users and your application. A good user experience can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the application, while a poor user experience may deter users from using an otherwise well-designed application.
Validation is the means by which your application checks and verifies input from all sources before trusting and processing it. A good input and data-validation strategy takes into account not only the source of the data, but also how the data will be used, when determining how to validate it.
Workflow is a system-assisted process that is divided into a series of execution steps, events, and conditions. The workflow may be an orchestration between a set of components and systems, or it may include human collaboration.Architectural Styles
For architectural styles, we first framed the key concerns to organize the architectural styles, and then we defined some common architectural styles.
Organizing Architectural Styles
These are the hot spots we used to organize architectural styles:
Service-Oriented Architecture(SOA) and/or Message Bus and/or Pipes and Filters.
Client/server or 3-Tier or N-Tier.
Domain Model or Gateway.
Component-Based and/or Object-Oriented and/or Layered Architecture.Architectural Style Frame
These are some commonly recognized architectural styles:
Segregates the system into two applications, where the client makes a service request to the server.
Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that are location-transparent and expose well-defined communication interfaces.
Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers) such as presentation layer, business layer, data layer, and services layer.
A software system that can receive and send messages that are based on a set of known formats, so that systems can communicate with each other without needing to know the actual recipient.
Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer.
An architectural style based on division of tasks for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object.
Separates the logic for managing user interaction from the user interface (UI) view and from the data with which the user works.
Refers to Applications that expose and consume functionality as a service using contracts and messages.Quality Attributes
For quality attributes, we first framed the key categories to organize the quality attributes, and then we defined some common quality attributes.
Organizing Quality Attributes
This is a simple way to organize and group quality attributes:
· Conceptual Integrity
· User Experience / UsabilityQuality Attribute Frame
These are some common quality attributes:
Availability is the proportion of time that the system is functional and working. It can be measured as a percentage of the total system downtime over a predefined period. Availability will be affected by system errors, infrastructure problems, malicious attacks, and system load.
Conceptual integrity is the consistency and coherence of the overall design. This includes the way that components or modules are designed, as well as factors such as coding style and variable naming.
The ability of a system to adapt to varying environments and situations, and to cope with changes in business policies and rules. A flexible system is one that is easy to reconfigure or adapt in response to different user and system requirements.
Interoperability is the ability of diverse components of a system or different systems to operate successfully by exchanging information, often by using services. An interoperable system makes it easier to exchange and reuse information internally as well as externally.
Maintainability is the ability of a system to undergo changes to its components, services, features, and interfaces as may be required when adding or changing the functionality, fixing errors, and meeting new business requirements.
Manageability is how easy it is to manage the application, usually through sufficient and useful instrumentation exposed for use in monitoring systems and for debugging and performance tuning.
Performance is an indication of the responsiveness of a system to execute any action within a given time interval. It can be measured in terms of latency or throughput. Latency is the time taken to respond to any event. Throughput is the number of events that take place within a given amount of time.
Reliability is the ability of a system to remain operational over time. Reliability is measured as the probability that a system will not fail to perform its intended functions over a specified time interval.
Reusability is the capability for components and subsystems to be suitable for use in other applications and in other scenarios. Reusability minimizes the duplication of components and also the implementation time.
Scalability is the ability of a system to function well when there are changes to the load or demand. Typically, the system will be able to be extended over more powerful or more numerous servers as demand and load increase.
Security is the ways that a system is protected from disclosure or loss of information, and the possibility of a successful malicious attack. A secure system aims to protect assets and prevent unauthorized modification of information.
Supportability is how easy it is for operators, developers, and users to understand and use the application, and how easy it is to resolve errors when the system fails to work correctly.
Testability is a measure of how easy it is to create test criteria for the system and its components, and to execute these tests in order to determine if the criteria are met. Good testability makes it more likely that faults in a system can be isolated in a timely and effective manner.
Usability defines how well the application meets the requirements of the user and consumer by being intuitive, easy to localize and globalize, and able to provide good access for disabled users and a good overall user experience.Layered Architecture Reference Model
This is our canonical application example. It’s a layered architecture showing the common components within each layer:
The canonical application model helped us show how the various layers and components work together. It was an easy diagram to pull up and talk through when we were discussing various design trade-offs at the different layers.
We identified the following layers:
- Presentation layer
- Business layer
- Data layer
- Service layer
They are logical layers. The important thing about layers is that they help factor and group your logic. They are also fractal. For example, a service can have multiple types of layers within it. The following is a quick explanation of the key components within each layer.
Presentation Layer Components
- User interface (UI) components. UI components provide a way for users to interact with the application. They render and format data for users and acquire and validate data input by the user.
- User process components. To help synchronize and orchestrate these user interactions, it can be useful to drive the process by using separate user process components. This means that the process-flow and state-management logic is not hard-coded in the UI elements themselves, and the same basic user interaction patterns can be reused by multiple UIs.
- Application facade (optional). Use a façade to combine multiple business operations into a single message-based operation. You might access the application façade from the presentation layer by using different communication technologies.
- Business components. Business components implement the business logic of the application. Regardless of whether a business process consists of a single step or an orchestrated workflow, your application will probably require components that implement business rules and perform business tasks.
- Business entity components. Business entities are used to pass data between components. The data represents real-world business entities, such as products and orders. The business entities used internally in the application are usually data structures, such as DataSets, DataReaders, or Extensible Markup Language (XML) streams, but they can also be implemented by using custom object-oriented classes that represent the real-world entities your application has to work with, such as a product or an order.
- Business workflows. Many business processes involve multiple steps that must be performed in the correct order and orchestrated. Business workflows define and coordinate long-running, multi-step business processes, and can be implemented using business process management tools.
- Data access logic components. Data access components abstract the logic necessary to access your underlying data stores. Doing so centralizes data access functionality, and makes the process easier to configure and maintain.
- Data helpers / utility components. Helper functions and utilities assist in data manipulation, data transformation, and data access within the layer. They consist of specialized libraries and/or custom routines especially designed to maximize data access performance and reduce the development requirements of the logic components and the service agent parts of the layer.
- Service agents. Service agents isolate your application from the idiosyncrasies of calling diverse services from your application, and can provide additional services such as basic mapping between the format of the data exposed by the service and the format your application requires.
- Service interfaces. Services expose a service interface to which all inbound messages are sent. The definition of the set of messages that must be exchanged with a service, in order for the service to perform a specific business task, constitutes a contract. You can think of a service interface as a façade that exposes the business logic implemented in the service to potential consumers.
- Message types. When exchanging data across the service layer, data structures are wrapped by message structures that support different types of operations. For example, you might have a Command message, a Document message, or another type of message. These message types are the “message contracts” for communication between service consumers and providers.
Tiers represent the physical separation of the presentation, business, services, and data functionality of your design across separate computers and systems. Some common tiered design patterns include two-tier, three-tier, and n-tier.
The two-tier pattern represents a basic structure with two main components, a client and a server.
In a three-tier design, the client interacts with application software deployed on a separate server, and the application server interacts with a database that is also located on a separate server. This is a very common pattern for most Web applications and Web services.
In this scenario, the Web server (which contains the presentation layer logic) is physically separated from the application server that implements the business logic.
It’s easier to find your way around when you have a map. By having a map, you know where the key hot spots are. The map helps you organize and share relevant information more effectively. More importantly, the map helps bring together archetypes, arch styles, and hot spots in a meaningful way. When you put it all together, you have a simple language for describing large classes of applications, as well as a common language for application architecture.
“You can, you should, and if you’re brave enough to start, you will.” — Stephen King
One of the best things at Microsoft is the chance to meet extraordinary people.
Jack Canfield, Ken Blanchard, and Stephen Covey are a few that top my list.
They are personal empowerment all-stars.
What do Jack Canfield, Ken Blanchard and Stephen Covey have in common?
Their work has a heavy emphasis on personal-empowerment, positivity, and people.
I thought it would be interesting to write a narrative about lessons learned from each, to supplement my bullet point write ups.
Here we go …Jack Canfield at Microsoft
Jack Canfield is all about taking full responsibility for everything that happens in your life. And he starts with self-talk. He says it’s not what people say or do, it’s what you say to yourself. For example, it’s not what Jack says to Laura, it’s what Laura says to Laura.
From a personal empowerment standpoint, Jack reminds us that we have control over three responses: 1) what we say or do, 2) our thoughts, 3) the images in our head. Jack is a big believer in the power of visualization and he reminds us that’s how athletes perform at greater levels — they see things in their minds, to guide what they can do with their bodies.
Jack shares a very simple formula for success. Jack’s success formula is Event + Response = Outcome. If you want to change the outcome, then change your response. It sounds simple, but it’s empowering.
Jack Canfield also reminded us that we are the creative force in our life and to get out of victimism:
“You are not the victim of your circumstances–You are the creative force of your life.”
Grow your circle of influence and make tremendous impact.
Read more at Lessons Learned from Jack Canfield.Ken Blanchard at Microsoft
Ken Blanchard is really about accentuating the positive. So much of the world focuses on what’s wrong, but he wants to focus on what’s right, so we can do more of that.
Ken has an incremental model of leadership that starts with you and expands from there: you, your team, your organization. The idea is that you can’t lead others effectively, if you can’t even lead yourself.
Ken’s model for leadership is really an adaptive model, that’s focused on the greater good, and it starts by helping everybody get an “A.” Leaders that apply one style to all team members, aren’t very effective. Ken suggests that leaders apply the right styles depending on what individuals need. Ken’s 4 leadership styles are:
Perhaps, the most profound statement that Ken made is that “leadership is love.” He said that leadership includes “loving your mission”, “loving your cusotmers”, “loving your people”, and “loving yourself — enough to get out of the way so others can be magnificent.”
Read more at Lessons Learned from Ken Blanchard.Stephen Covey at Microsoft
Stephen Covey was really about personal effectiveness, realizing your potential, and leaving a legacy.
Covey really emphasized a whole-person approach: Body, Mind, Heart, Spirit. His point was that if you take one of the four parts of your nature away, then you’re treating a person like a “thing” you control and manage.
Covey also emphasized the importance of a personal mission. It gives meaning to your work and it helps you channel all of your efforts as you live and lead your legacy. He also suggested writing your personal mission down and visualizing it to imprint it on your subconscious.
The other key to realizing your potential is finding your voice. Use all of you, your best way, in your unique way, for your best results. That’s how you differentiate and add value for yourself and others.
And, of course, Stephen Covey reminded us of the 7 Habits of Highly Effective People:
- Be proactive.
- Begin with the end in mind.
- Put first things first.
- Think win-win.
- Seek first to understand, then to be understood.
- Sharpen the saw.
Habits 1,2,and 3 are the foundation for private victories and integrity. Habits 4, 5, and 6 are the keys to public victories.
Read more at Lessons Learned from Stephen Covey.
All-in-all, I have to say that while individually each of these personal empowerment all-stars has great wisdom and insight for personal effectiveness, leadership, and success, they are actually “better together.”
Each day in the halls of Microsoft, I find myself reflecting on their one-liner reminders, whether it’s Covey’s “Put first things first,” or Canfield’s “You are the creative force of your life”, or Blanchard’s “None of us is as smart as all of us.”You Might Also Like
Long ago, I had spun off a focus on Personal Effectiveness to Sources of Insight.
I mentor a lot of teams and leaders for high-performance, and I needed a place to consolidate and share principles, patterns, and practices for personal effectiveness. In fact, the tag-line is:
Proven Practices for Personal Effectiveness
I’ve significantly revamped the user experience, the content, and the collections of resources on Sources of Insight to reflect the latest feedback that users have shared with me (thank you all.)
Sources of Insight is for people with a passion for more from work and life. The goal of Sources of Insight is to be your source of insight, inspiration, and impact to help you achieve more in work and life. Whether you are an achiever or a high-performer, or simply want to work on your personal effectiveness, Sources of Insight will help you accelerate your results.
Better Insights, Better Results
One of the slogans I use is “Better Insights, Better Results” because the big idea is to “empower people with skill for work and life.”
Sources of Insight is now a success library of more than 1,300 articles with a focus on helping you “create a smarter, more creative, more capable you.”
You can think of this as applying patterns & practices to work and life, as well as making “Agile for Life” real.
The idea here is to give you the tools and techniques that will help you rise above the noise, get a better vantage point, and make better decisions to change any situation you find yourself in, or to create better situations from the start.Stand on the Shoulders of Giants
As part of building out Sources of Insight, I draw from great books, great people, and great quotes, to help you “Stand on the shoulders of giants.”
As my friend puts it, what I really do is help you “Run with the titans.”
I’m a big believer in finding the “best of the best” from various disciplines and experts around the world and synthesizing into actionable guidance.
I periodically have featured guests on Sources of Insight. I try to find the people that are the best in the world at what they do, or that have some interesting insight that will help you think differently or make more impact.
Many of my guest posts are by best-selling authors, but I also include comedians, and others.
Some of my guests include Al Ries – the father of brand positioning in the mind, Guy Kawasaki – who is all about empowering people, Gretchen Rubin – author of The Happiness Project, Jairek Robbins – author of Live It (and Tony Robbins’s son), Jim Kouzes – author of The Leadership Challenge, Marie Forleo – some say she is a female Tony Robbins, Michael Michalko – author of Thinker Toys, and a former Disney imagineer, Rick Kirschner – author of Dealing with People You Can’t Stand, Tim Ferris – author of The 4-Hour Work Week, and many more. (You can see featured guests at a glance on the Feature Guests page on Sources of Insight.)
Realize Your Potential
What makes the articles a bit different on Sources of Insight is they usually reflect problems that I am helping people with, so they are real-world scenarios and solutions.
In this way, Sources of Insight is more than a clearinghouse of the world’s best insight and action for work and life – it’s also a self-paced, virtual mentor where you can learn how to be YOUR best.
Some readers say that the key thing for them is that Sources of Insight helps you “realize your potential.”
As Ralph Waldo Emerson would say, “Make the most of yourself….for that is all there is of you.”
And I would add, nobody else is going to do it for you
Popular Topics for Personal Effectiveness
On Sources of Insight, I cover key topics for personal effectiveness. The most popular topics are:
I also have collections of Great Books, Great People, Great Quotes:
Great Books – These are hand-crafted indexes of interesting and insightful books that you can use to improve all aspects of your work and life. I spend a lot of money on books every single month and I read a lot of books each and every week. In fact, many of my blog posts are what I call “Book Nuggets” which are like the best needles in the haystack. My Great Books collection reflects a heavy investment in my quest to find the best wisdom of the world that is spread across hundreds, and thousands of books. Some of my more popular collections of books include Business Books, Career Books, Leadership Books, Personal Development Books, and Productivity Books.
Great People – This is where I shared and scale my best lessons learned and key insights from all walks of life. What I do is I try to compact and distill the best insights from various people into lessons learned. You can think of it as “Greatness Distilled.” Some people are famous and others are unsung heroes. What I focus on is the interesting insights that you can use to get better at work and life. Here are a few of my more popular great people pages: Bruce Lee, Chalene Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Stephen Covey, Tony Robbins, and Steve Jobs.
Great Quotes – This is my attempt to organize collections of the world’s best wisdom of the ages and modern sages at your fingertips. The right words can spark the right ideas, or the right thinking or the right feeling or taking the right action. The right words help us live better, and they help us do better, and they help us be better. The right words help us build better vocabularies and better mental models and better ways of doing and being, living, and even breathing. Here are some of the more popular quotes collections: Focus Quotes, Happiness Quotes, Inspirational Quotes, Leadership Quotes, Motivation Quotes, Personal Development Quotes, and Productivity Quotes.
As I mentioned early, Sources of Insight is a Success Library of more than 1,3000+ Articles for Personal Greatness. You can start at the Articles page,
Some of the most popular articles include: 7 Habits of Happiness, 25 Inspirational Movies, 50 Life Hacks for Your Future Self, 101 of the Greatest Insights and Actions for Work and Life, 101 Questions that Empower You, How To Get Whatever You Want, How To Think Like Bill Gates, Inspirational Quotes, Lessons Learned from Bruce Lee, The Exponential Results Formula, You 2.0.Books
On Sources of Insight, the Books page is where I share free eBooks as well as feature the books I author. At this point, my main book featured is Getting Results the Agile Way, which is a personal results system for work and life.
Getting Results the Agile Way is where I introduce my simple productivity system: Agile Results.
Agile Results is really a simple system for meaningful results. It helps you create more moments that matter. It also helps you work on the right things, at the right time, the right way, with the right energy, to amplify your influence and impact.
Most importantly, it gets you spend more time in your strengths, less time in your weaknesses, and it helps you give your best where you have your best to give.
On Sources of Insight, the Courses page is where I share training to help you realize your potential and bring out your best.
My favorite way to provide training is through what I call “Monthly Improvement Sprints” or “30 Day Improvement Sprints” or just “30 Day Sprints.”
They are effectively 30 Day Challenges where you practice a little each day, to get better over time.
I find 30 Day Challenges or 30 Day Sprints are a great way to build better habits, learn new things, and improve your skills and abilities at whatever you focus on.
On the Courses page, you’ll find 30 Days of Getting Results, which was my attempt to share the absolute best principles, patterns, and practices for personal productivity.
Best of all, it’s free. It could well be the best self-paced training you ever take for high-performance and for mastering productivity, time management, and work-life balance.
Plus, it’s a powerful way to learn Agile Results in a simple way, with one mini-lesson each day, that includes an exercise to put it into practice.Resources
On Sources of Insight, the Resources page is effectively a library of helpful resources at your fingertips. Here are a few of the key resources:
Book Review – My Book Reviews are like mini movie trailers of books, where I include key highlights from the book as well as my key take aways. I don’t really do book reviews, where I talk about pros and cons. Instead, I look for the most interesting or the most insightful parts of the book and focus on those. I always ask the question, “How can I use this?” and I apply those “Book Nuggets” and those key take aways to real world scenarios.
Cheat Sheets – Cheat Sheets put key information at your fingertips. The only Cheat Sheet I have so far is a Blogging Resources Cheat Sheet. It’s actually a very powerful Cheat Sheet though, if you happen to be a blogger. I get asked a lot about blogging, everything from how to get started to how to create a successful blog. People ask me what the connection of blogging is to Personal Effectiveness, and to me it’s simple: Working on your blog, is working on your life. By building a blog, you build a personal platform for learning and growth. Blogging is still one of the most effective ways I know to focus on personal development, while giving your best where you have your best to give, and sharing your unique expertise with the world. I plan to add some very special Cheat Sheets of hard-core knowledge, so this page is more of a placeholder for now.
Checklists – Checklists are a quick way to provides lists of “one-liner reminders.” In general, I try to focus on creating actionable checklists that inspire and trigger the right thinking or the right actions. Currently, I provide a Focus Checklist, Leadership Checklist, Time Management Checklist, and The Charge Checklist, which is a checklist I created based on the best-selling book, The Charge.
How Tos – How Tos are a great way to turn insight into action. My most popular How Tos include How To Achieve Any Goal, How To Avoid Breaking Under Pressure, How To Change Any Habit, How To Find Your Strengths, and How To Find Your Values.
Product Recommendations – This is my roundup of the best products I’ve used for personal development and improving personal effectiveness. The big deal here is The Greatest Personal Development Gifts Ever. Not only are these the personal development programs that have served me well, but they are the gifts that I give to friends and family to give them an edge in work and life.
Trends – This is where I share key trends each year. If you’ve ever read one of my trends posts, you know that they are deep, and they help give you a big advantage when it comes to seeing the road ahead. One of the most important personal effectiveness skills that you can build is anticipation. The way to improve your anticipation is to learn how to identify, understand, and apply trends to create your future. When you focus on trends, they also help you build your visionary leadership skills, and if there’s one thing this world needs more of, it’s visionary leadership. Here is my Trends for 2016 post. It is a really deep dive into what’s happening around the world, but it also provides you the balcony view at a glance. Use this as your advantage to maneuver at work, to shape your business, and to shape yourself, with clarity, courage, and competence. After all, 2016 is the year of the bold!Personal Effectiveness Toolbox
I wonder if I saved the best for last? The Personal Effectiveness Toolbox is, to this date, my greatest compilation of the greatest programs and tools to help you do more and achieve more in this lifetime.
On the Personal Effectiveness Toolbox page, I share all of the best tools that I have used over the years to exponentially improve my ability to get results and to amplify my impact.
These are some of the best programs that have helped me really understand influence and impact.
They have helped me create my own personal achievement systems.
They have helped me get over any limiting beliefs and master my mind.
They have helped me really understand emotional intelligence at a deeper level and learn real skills and techniques.
They have also been my greatest programs for personal development and improving personal effectiveness across mind, body, emotions, career, finance, relationships, and fun.Change the World or Go Home
We have a little saying that we use in the halls at Microsoft:
Change the world or go home!
Every now and then, you can see a poster in the hall or on somebody’s wall of the Microsoft Blue Monster.
It was the work of Hugh MacLeod as you can recognize by his art – simplicity and elegance in action (and you can read the backstory at The Blue Monster.)
You have everything at your fingertips to be YOUR best and to realize your potential, the agile way.
Go ahead and change the world, your way.
Always remember to give your best, where you have YOUR best to give.
Digital Transformation is much broader than a technical play. It’s a chance to reimagine your customer experience, how your employees work, and how you perform operations.
It’s also a chance to continuously create and capture value in new and innovative ways, and I don’t just mean with DevOps.
Your business isn’t static. Neither is the world. Neither is the market. Neither is Digital Transformation.
Instead, Digital Transformation is a way to continuously evolve how you create and capture value in a mobile-first, cloud-first world.
In Digital Transformation Dr. Mark Baker shares how “digital” is more than just bits and bytes and there is always more Digital Transformation that can be done.Digital Transformation is Bound by Business Decisions, Not Technical Ones
Your Digital Transformation should not be bounded by technical decisions. Your Digital Business Transformation approach should be driven by your business decisions and your business design. What matters is that the landscape is digital and that you have to design for new customer experiences, new ways of working, and new ways of performing operations in a mobile-first, cloud-first world.
“Today, when we talk of digital transformation we mean restructuring an organization to use any and all information and network-based technologies that increase its competitiveness, in a way that, over a period of time, excludes and out-competes un-transformed organizations. Of course, in a literal sense, when we walk literally about digital we mean something like expressing data as series of the digits 0 and 1 or using or storing data or information in the form of digital signals: digital TV, a digital recording or a digital computer system.
However, if we think about it that way the whole scope of our understanding and what we are thinking of achieving is quite limited and fairly technical.
In the bigger sense of digital we mean a road map that includes the full process of making a business or service so that every part is freely accessible at every level with bounds set by explicit management models, not by physical constraints. Ultimately it means that all decisions become business or usage decisions, not technical ones.”Example of First Generation Digital Transformation
There are always some basic things you can do to get in the game of Digital Transformation. But that is just the start. Baker shares an example using a library and how they performed their Digital Transformation.
“It might be useful to give a simple example where, whose general principles apply to all digital projects. The Bodleian Libraries are a collection of approximately 40 libraries that serve the University of Oxford in England. One of the largest and most important libraries in the world, they hold 11 million printed items, 153 miles (246 kilometers) of shelving, including 3,224 bays with 95,000 shelf levels, and 600 map cabinets to hold 1.2 million maps and other items.
During the first generation of transformation I talked to senior librarians at the Bodleian, and the digital library projects that I was told of turned texts into bitmaps. Information was still effectively siloed and not electronically searchable within books, but the advantage of digital transformation at that stage was that the physical master copies were protected and copies could be sent with manually controlled access over electronic network to authorized users anywhere in the world.”Example of Second Generation Digital Transformation
Once you go digital, more opportunities open up for further transformation. Baker continues the example of a library that undergoes Digital Transformation.
“Later more advanced approaches, like Project Guttenberg, digitized the text into ASCII format so that catalogs of books were both digital and searchable as were the individual books. Beyond that, projects like Google Books Library Project allowed the whole contents of all the books to become accessible to a single keyword search that could search all text across volumes.”There is Always More Digital Transformation That Can Be Done
There is always more you can do and there are many stages to a full Digital Transformation.
“Of course, going digital goes beyond digitizing content and a more advanced model would determine accessibility, access and usage rights and payments, not just in the local user community but worldwide. In a project of that type any user would be able to do keyword searches across all the contents of a particular library and then usage and any payment would be determined for the specific books or documents they wanted access to, appropriate access would be granted and payment (if any) would be collected. If acquisition was performed on the same platform then requests for information, usage statistics, reader feedback and null-searches could be matched to the acquisition of new materials for the library, so as to better serve the users.
Ultimately even search goes further so that improved semantic search tools would allow search by meaning s well as by key words or phrases, as well as predictive analysis of future usage creating a proactive model, rather than a reactive model where the available content is always out of date.
At each state the instigators might have expressed the view that they had ‘gone digital’ and at each stage there would have been much, much more that could be done. This is, of course, just one specific instance of digital transformation related to libraries, but shows a simplified example of how there are many stages to a full transformation.”
Digital Transformation is not done when you are “transformed.”
It’s a journey of continuous evolution.You Might Also Like
Digital Transformation is everywhere. It’s easy to let the tail wag the dog, especially when you are in the face of disruption.
But great and meaningful change always goes back to strategy.
In fact, if you really think about it, a lot of digital disruption is rooted in simple strategies for creating and capturing value at the edge, shifting power to users and consumers, reducing friction, and driving extreme efficiencies as new customer segments are created, new markets are forged, and the market seeks the dominant design.
Fundamentally, Digital Business Transformation is the digitization of business. But as part of digitizing, you need to know WHY and WHAT you are digitizing before getting lost in the HOW of digitization.
To survive and thrive in the digital age, it helps to have a handle on how to think about the landscape and how to play the game.
In Digital Transformation Dr. Mark Baker shares how different consulting companies and business leaders are thinking about Digital Business Transformation.Business Strategy for the Digital World
PwC is in the leadership quadrant because rather than focus on a digital strategy for the business world, they focus on a business strategy for the digital world. I can relate to this because I’m on a team where we put business before technology. This means fundamentally thinking about market trends, business drivers, business outcomes and investment objectives to shape the Digital Business Transformation approach.
“PwC Consulting, if you look at the Gartner reports, or if you look at the Forrester reports, you’d see that they’d been doing a lot of work in the space over the past few years and are positioned in the leader’s quadrant. Some of the reasons for being in the leader’s quadrant for PwC is because they’ve done something remarkably well and I really, really like the philosophy and that’s why I joined PwC. It’s because that they believe that, you know, we don’t need the digital strategy. What we require is a business strategy for the digital world and it just makes so much sense.”Customer Journeys are Changing—How Do I Engage with My Customers?
One way to keep your bearings in the Digital Age from a business leader standpoint is to remember that your customer is your North Star. A business exists to create a customer, as Peter Drucker puts it.
It’s easy to get lost in trying to implement multi-channel this, or API structure that, but those aren’t the real questions. According to PwC, the real questions to drive your Digital Transformation start with recognizing that your customers demand new ways of learning about , trying, exploring, adopting, and socializing your products and services now. So the real question is how do you connect and engage with your customers in relevant ways. Once you shift your focus to your customer and their journey, now you can align your technical capabilities to support your key decisions that directly address your customer’s pains, needs, and desired outcomes.
“So I think when we talk about PwC and their philosophy for digital, what they’re really saying is a digital strategy perhaps is limiting the impact of digital in today’s world. It’s really a business strategy for the digital age and we do know that the digital age is here to stay for a considerable long time and it’s not about saying, ‘Hey, how do I have a multi-channel strategy or you know, how do I, you know, choose to go with an API structure?’ These are not the questions that are really being asked.
The questions that are really being asked are…you know, ‘Customer journeys are changing today because of what digital has done, and therefor, my acquisition or my retention, you know, frameworks, or the way I’m going to go out and engage with my customers, needs to change. So can you help me to manage this change?’ So there’s a difference between the two things to say, ‘Here’s a digital strategy,’ ‘Here’s a multichannel strategy’ while on the other hand you’re saying, ‘Hey, how do I actually…’ The same questions, but asked for the digital age and I think there’s great merit in that position. So that’s all about PwC Consulting and their take on digital.’”Digital is Greater than the Sum of All Parts
Digital Transformation cuts across the board and spans your business. A simple way to think of it is to think in terms of the impact on customer experience transformation, employee or workforce transformation, and operations transformation. Your customer experience transformation spans your value chain. Your value chain connects your customer to product or service, supported by your business capabilities, which in turn are supported by technical capabilities. And as you evolve your value chain to better support customers, you also change how your workforce interacts with customers, partners, and each other. And as you evolve your workforce, you evolve your operations, and you innovate as you find ways to do things better, faster, and cheaper.
As you can imagine, you can’t just look at one business function or one piece of the business. You need to take a whole business view to better understand how Digital has a ripple effect across the entire business, and how the sum of the digital change is more than the parts.
“So digital isn’t a part of a division. Digital is greater than the sum of all parts. As we’ll see as we progress, if change is inevitable, it’s likely to be transformative and revolutionary rather than incremental and evolutionary in many cases, and there is likely to be disruption and resistance. That doesn’t man that if it is planned ahead, like expert surgery, or a space mission, it can’t be mitigated in such a way that no individual step is traumatic, and the appearance of an incremental, stepwise process is retained.”
Digital Transformation is here. You can run from it, or you can embrace it and re-imagine how you can lead your business in a mobile-first, cloud-first world.